Our Healthiest Forefathers
In 776 B.C. the Olympics was first conceived and then established by the ancient Greeks. Of all the amazing feats displayed in their historical artwork, one stands out above all others. It is their pictorial and written accounts of the long jump competition. And for good reason. Of all the events in the Games, this competition was the most revered over any other feat of strength, endurance and over all physical skill.
The champion long jumper of these ancient games (480 B.C.) was Phayllos of Kroton. His longest jump at the Games was reportedly fifty-five feet in a single jump!,  In these ancient Games, long jumpers included hand-held stones (called Halteres) used as weights. Apparently their technique during the jump was to swing the Halteres while launching off the ground, and then holding onto them during the jump. These weights averaged between 1 to 4.5 kilos each.
Now, keep this in mind. The current world record for the modern day long jump which remains unsurpassed since 1991 is 8.95 m (29.4 ft). Yet, legend holds that much longer jumps were the norm at many of these competitions. Debate today rages that the Halteres, when used properly, actually helped to propel these athletes to attain distances longer than our current day athletes are able to achieve. Hmmm, I sure would like to see today’s athletes attempt such distances of 55 feet with these bulky Halteres!
Four and a half centuries after the first Olympics, Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) set his army off to conquer the known world. And he did. At the end of his conquest in India, some of his generals who had taken wives along the way knew they would likely never return home to Greece or retire to civilian life so they could simply raise a family in peace.
This because of the relentless blind ambition of Alexander, who would simply burn all his bridges as he conquered the known world. Fed up after many years of this kind of relentless dictatorship, a significant group of them decided to make a well planned effort to go AWOL. They knew from the start that they had to flee to the most remote place possible, so that they and their families could never be found. They all knew what the price would be if Alexander ever found them. So, according to Hunzakut legend, they fled into the most remote and high Himalayan Mountains located in extreme NW Pakistan of today, which is now called Hunzaland. From this point forward, their genes were to play out to optimize human performance. This gene pool would become an "autochthonous" example of how the human race's genes express optimal longevity and health if only given the proper set of circumstances (see - Weston A. Price, DDS - section below).
Today it has been established with modern DNA analysis that the Hunza (Burusho) people are indeed the descendants of the ancient Greeks via the conquests of Alexander the Great.
As the Hunzakut legends indicate, they eventually located what they thought would be a most remote and highly defensible resettlement should Alexander ever find them. There, they decided to make it their new home, to make their last stand if necessary, living out a life of self-determined freedom at any and all costs. They settled in a high mountain valley at an altitude of over 7,500 feet, surrounded by a cloak of mountains on all sides with only the narrowest of passage ways to gain access -- the perfect defensive situation for mounting a counter attack if it should ever be necessary. This otherwise uninterrupted ring of mountains extended upwards into the 25,000 foot level, with basically just one low altitude entrance to their flank (lower Pakistan of today), and one low altitude exit to their front (the most western border of present day China).
Their warriors learned how to use the narrow, extraordinarily steep mountain paths to perfect their strength and endurance even more. They taught and led their children to do the same. The low oxygen content of the air made these Greeks adapt or die. Together with the incredibly steep mountain paths coupled to the thin oxygen levels, would require this Greek gene pool cardiovascular giants and likely superior to any other known humans in the world, save perhaps the Abkhasians 3,000 miles away living in the high foothills of the Caucasus mountain range. The Hunzakut lung, heart and muscular capacity simply became monstrous in terms of how we civilized folks live our lives in bodies so puny in comparison. Their immune systems kept up, or else they died young. They extracted out of the land every ounce of nutrition, sought every conceivable terrace possible to grow their food, and to grow it in a way that perfected the crop's nutrient values to the extreme.
This band of warrior Greeks would have possessed all the known Greek agrarian technologies, craftsmanship, tool making skills and knowledge of their day. And this great cultural advantage would have established advanced farming methods that included well-engineered irrigation systems and soil fertility techniques. They united all the physical elements to all of the biology in their environment as they tamed the land and made it theirs. Their cell physiology thrived, or died trying to do so. Natural selection dictated both the fall and rise of their lineage, and they won the ultimate victory possible over the next 2,200 years, that is, the ultimate perfection of the human constitution.
Simultaneously on the home front, the ancient Greeks were perfecting another Shangri-La on the Island of Ikaria. Today another lineage of Greeks enjoy the highest number of robust and healthy nonagenarians (90+ year olds) per capita in the known world.,  Bear this in mind as we go back now to the highest altitudes of NW Pakistan, jumping from 323 B.C. to the early part of the last century (circa 1900), nearly 2,220 years later.
Overview of the physique & constitution of the pristine traditional adhering Hunzakuts or pta-Hunzakuts) - by Sir Robert McCarrison (1878-1960), British Surgeon who spent over thirty years living among the pta-Hunzakuts (save for the war years), studying their lifestyle, soil fertility, health, dietary and their respective impacts upon the pta-Hunzakut constitution.
Toward the end of his career, Major-General Sir Robert McCarrison served as the King of England's physician. He became knighted for the dauntless and impeccable scientific work he conducted while in service to his great nation at the turn of the last century. By 1930, McCarrison had elucidated the exact set of factors and conditions that blessed the pta-Hunzakuts and endowed them with a near perfect human constitution. Early in his career, he proved via thousands of murine (rat) studies that the superior dietary of the pta-Hunzakut laid at the source of their profound longevity and vigor. He also recognized the dietary came from the incredible richness of the Hunzaland terraced farmlands.
Later, George T. Wrench (The Wheel of Health) was to comprehensively review the qualities to the Hunzaland soil and link this knowledge base with the most renowned researchers in soil science of his day, such as William Albrecht (also see below), Sir John Orr (On Minerals in Pastures), Sir Albert Howard (The Waste Products of Agriculture), and Professor FH King (Farmers of Forty Centuries). This body of work then subsequently established the optimal reference standards for soil fertility, an absolute requirement for deriving optimal cRFsTM.
However, even before McCarrison arrived on the extreme NW of India to conduct his studies, Biddulph (cited by Wrench) documented that civilization was already encroaching upon the traditional practices of its traditionally adhering people. That began in earnest sometime between 1880 and 1911. This infiltration arrived in at least two forms:
(A) By the British's road project utilizing superior road construction techniques (they wished to open commercial trade from southern India into China), and by...
(B) Gradual infiltration of modern food technologies which compromised the delicate ptaHunzakut traditional food chain.
Thus, with the (1) new additions of non-Hunzas now freely able to immigrate into the region, plus (2) the slower infiltration of British dietary practices upon the unsuspecting primary traditional adhering Hunzakuts (or pta-Hunzakuts), there arose an ever incrementally growing sub-population of both in Hunzaland. And as their descendants ensued, both these (a) "imposter" and (b) non-primary traditional adhering people in Hunzaland continued to call themselves Hunzas. For the purposes of our discussion, we will call this dual constituent sub-population "non-pta-Hunzakuts."
One of the telltale sign of these non-pta-Hunzakuts would have been their inferior constitutions. IN OTHER WORDS, for those trained in constitutional analysis, the subject's constitution never lies!
Those that immigrated into Hunzaland would obviously possess constitutions greatly inferior to the pta-Hunzakuts from the start. McCarrison had documented that. But those Hunzakuts who allowed themselves and their children to slowly abandon their honored time tested traditional dietary in stages, part by part, piece by piece, bit by bit, and bite by bite, would lose their constitutions more slowly. It might take years or even a generation or two for this abandonment of their strict traditional dietary to fully degrade a family's constitutional lineage. Hence, as studies proceeded over the decades, compromised data would incrementally accrue with each passing generation, which would be seen as more and more contrary to original findings.
Likewise, McCarrison warned of this phenomenon of "cumulative data corruption" for future reference, but it would fall on deaf ears. So, all during this degradation process, newly arriving scientific team investigators would be none the wiser to this insidious phenomenon. In other words, they would confuse pta-Hunzakuts with non-pta-Hunzakuts. The reason? Ignorance, pure and simple. It was a blind spot in their methodology they never even thought of. More specifically, they knew next to nothing about proper Constitutional Analysis of human beings. When scientists confuse similar things as identical things, this is the result - a corrupted scientific method setting up perpetual serial false conclusions. Like one bad domino in the chain of research, one falls, and they all follow suit, falsely tossing out the true reality-based reference standards.
In distinction from this error of confusion, almost from the very start of their investigations of optimal primary states (OPS), both McCarrison and later Weston A. Price (see next section below) conducted extensive independent animal experiments to validate the pta-peoples they studied. They undertook these studies in accordance with foods collected and prepared exactly as used by pta-peoples living under OPS. These experiments were controlled, that is, one group received the optimal foods prepared according to pta-peoples'standards, the other group the same foods, but grown and prepared as was common in civilization. Results were startling.
The first set of animals flourished and exhibited wonderful health (meaning little to no disease), vigor and full-bodied physiques. The other groups fed foods of the same composition, only grown and prepared as in modern civilization, clearly were: (1) smaller, (2) fatter, (3) weaker looking and (4) remained susceptible to diseases commonly known for the selected animal group. Metric measurements confirmed the stunted nature of these non-optimal animal constitutions.
Beyond this use of actual metrics, only Price began documenting human race degeneration via photographic records. He demonstrated repeatedly the effects of incremental degradation on the dental arches and jaw lines of members of pta-peoples who had adopted the ways of civilization. McCarrison would use his famous lectures to convey his clinical observations in the field of how much superior the pta-Hunzakuts were to other tribes and people. But without an actual methodology on how future investigators should follow-up these observations made by both men, this vital aspect to properly track OPS went no further.
Unfortunately, not any of the future follow-on investigators traveling to OPS or investigating pta-peoples had detailed records of exactly what the internal body compositions (weight, height, fat, water and lean protein mass ratios) were of these folks. Nor did they collect anatomical metric ratios of their trunks, extremities and weight either. The original investigators such as McCarrison and Price were never trained in formal Constitutional Analysis techniques, which over this same time frame had simultaneously emerged in earnest in Italy. This would have been so crucial to Hunzakut history had it been incorporated by either McCarrison or Price that I cannot over state its importance.
I am referring to the renowned work of Achille De Giovanni beginning in 1882, who at that time established the first school of clinical anthropology specializing in the science of human anthropometrics (biotypology). Subsequently, at both the University at Bologna under Viola, and the University of Genoa under Pende, there arose`InstitutoBiotipologico,' which became world-renowned by 1930. Pende explained in a single sentence the importance of human anthropometrics as a core standard reference for any and all medical investigations by his famous quote, "L'anatomia e la fisiologia spartono gli organi;la clinica li riunisce." (Anatomy and physiology separate the organs,the clinic reunites them.) Had Giovanni, Viola or Pende been present along the side of Biddulph or McCarrison, they would have made precise calculations and measurements document such constitutional degradation encroaching insidiously upon Hunzaland.
In the absence of such anthropometric data, this encroachment would necessarily confuse the many follow-on researchers who began to question the longevity and vigor of the peoples living in Hunzaland, notably John Clark (1909- 1994). Clark was a geologist and Hunzaland researcher who remained oblivious to this fact over the 20 months he spent living among its people. Clark published a well cited book in 1957 entitled, Hunza - Lost Kingdom of the Himalayas. This is but one of the plethora of examples of publications gone awry on the subject. What would have likely instantly raised the suspicions of McCarrison was the fact that Clark manned a drug dispensary for the peoples then inhabiting Hunzaland. Clark makes a big point about his daily work in which he dispensed thousands of drugs to help the suffering.
Of course what Clark was actually seeing, but not recognizing it, was the most distal affects of the constitutional degradation process first hand. In the absence of proper constitutional analysis data that in theory could have been initiated in 1882 forward, how could Clark have realized these were members of the ever growing sub-population of Hunzaland, and not the pta-Hunzakuts?
pta-Hunzakuts rarely, if ever, required modern medicine of any kind, as comprehensively documented by McCarrison. So we must place into correct context what the following statement truly means:
Clark's 20 months living among the peoples of Hunzaland in the later stages of Hunzaland's insidious degradation process (1950-1951) verses McCarrison's 30 years embedded among predominantly ptaHunzakuts still in the early to early-intermediate stages of the encroachment process (~1901-1931).
Both observed the health status of the folks, but it was the context of these observations that mattered most. Although Clark apparently received training approximating that of an army medic, McCarrison was among the best trained and experienced physicians in the world to appraise the health status of the peoples living Hunzaland. Thus, Clark provides us with the perfect example of how similar things (non-pta-Hunzakuts) are mistaken for identical things (pta-Hunzakuts). McCarrison knew full well if he was treating an immigrant living in Hunzaland, verses a ptaHunzakut. As McCarrison was well aware, if the pta-Hunzakut fell ill, they would simply use traditional herbal medicines. Or, if the condition was more resistant to treatment, they intuitively added in some fasting or light eating and simply let their immune systems take all the time they needed to resolve the sickness. Exceptions would include broken bones or other traumas, which McCarrison was an expert at setting.
And Clark would not be in the minority regarding his confusion. What most all follow-on researchers did not understand, but we know because of the epic work and investigations made by Price, would be that after 1930, unless constitutional sceening were employed using anthropometric analysis, anyone researching any isolated primary peoples of exceptional health and longevity would likely fall sooner than later into this same trap. Some examples of these otherwise exceptional researchers would be: Drs. Alexander Leaf, RB Mazess, NG Bennet, ZA Medvedev, EB Palmore, and others. In sequence, they unwittingly would enter into a chain of falling dominos, quoting their out of context field research reports which only could reflect the end-stages of a culture's degradation process that started decades prior.
At the same time, there were situations that avoided confusing similar imposters with the real thing. This was due to original researchers being fortunate enough to get to the real data before civilization's encroachment began, or under special circumstance, very rare, in where a culture resisted this encroachment due to their rigid adherence to the pristine traditional minded ways. The independent researchers such as Drs. McCarrison and Price fit well the first example. And Professors Vihjalmur Stefansson, Sula Benet and Georgi Pitskhelauri were among the more fortunate to largely or completely conduct their studies that excluded these ever arising non-pta sub-populations. We briefly cover this below, but the more detailed documentation on this will be covered in my future Regeneration Effect series.
Let's start with a first example of what our genes are capable of expressing from the first culture discovered. The words of McCarrison help us understand the real, perfected pta-Hunzakut constitution:
“My own experience provides an example of a race, unsurpassed in perfection of physique and in freedom from disease in general, whose sole food consists to this day of grains, vegetables, and fruits, with a certain amount of milk and butter, and meat only on feast days. I refer to the people of the State of Hunza, situated in the extreme northernmost point of India. So limited is the land available for cultivation that they can keep little livestock other than goats, which browse on the hills, while the food supply is so restricted that the people, as a rule, do not keep dogs. They have, in addition to grains -- wheat, barley, and maize -- an abundant crop of apricots. These they dry in the sun and use very largely in their food. Amongst these people thespan of life is extraordinarily long; and such service as I was able to render them during some seven years spent in their midst (McCarrison's first embedding) was confined chiefly to the treatment of accidental lesions, the removal of senile cataract, plastic operations for granular eyelids, or the treatment of maladies wholly unconnected with food supply. Appendicitis, so common in Europe, was unknown. When the severe nature of the winter in that part of the Himalayas is considered, and the fact that their housing accommodation and conservancy arrangements are of the most primitive, it becomes obvious that the enforced restriction to the unsophisticated foodstuffs of nature is compatible with long life, continued vigour, and perfect physique.”
The health expressions of these pta-Hunzakut constitutions could in theory be divided into three demarcations or categories:
(A). Those which experienced essentially disease-free living up till the age of 90;
(B). Those who experienced minor or gradual declines in disease-free living past the age of 90 (the long-living); and...
(C). Those who lived to be over 120 years of age and generally only experienced a rapid decline in disease-free living when entering into their last few months or year of life (i.e., the extreme long-living).
However, due to nonexistent written record keeping, and the lack of skill set of the earliest Hunzaland investigators, true age verification documenting the extreme longliving of the pta-Hunzakuts was lost to the world. What was irrefutably established was their essentially disease-free living coinciding with their universally acknowledged long life. Note: It is universally recognized that any population enjoying largely disease-free living will naturally live longer than those who do not. Folks who do not contract the chronic degenerative diseases will simply tend to live longer than those who do.
Also, it is universally acknowledged by linguists that there are but three ways of keeping records within any culture. The first is verbal. The second is written on paper-like recordings. The third is when historical records are written (etched) in stone or drawn on stone, such as within the Pyramids of Egypt. What is most interesting about this is, by all agreement, linguists feel the "verbal" method is the most accurate way an autochthonous culture passes down its history, since the words used can also convey tone and emphasis on the words, giving better context to what the real meaning is. Writing accounts cannot. Yet, there has been repeated citings of studies by anthropologists that older folks like to start lying about their age (typically after 70 years of age) that obfuscates this principle known to linguists. I maintain certain, select pta-cultures have built-in ethical mechanisms that would prevent this. Such mechanisms need only to be screened for to identify. Such an example would be the Florida Seminole Indians (up until the mid-1900's), and the pta-Abkhasians (up to at least the mid-1900's). Both withstood the encroachment of civilization, including temptations to begin lying about their heritage, due to this built-in ethical mechanism, which was so highly valued by their respective cultures. Both examples will be documented in my forthcoming series.
Weston A. Price, DDS (1870-1948)
By the time McCarrison began reporting on his epic studies of the pta-Hunzakuts spanning over three decades (~1900- early 1930's), and a bit before anthropologist, ethnologist and archaeologist Prof. Sula Benet (early 1970's) and medical gerontologist Prof. Pitskhelauri (early 1980's) independently completed their respective comprehensive field-work studies on the pta-Abkhasians of Soviet Georgia, arose a surprising investigator into the field - Weston Price. By traversing the globe over a decade (1930 to 1940), the former president of the American Dental Association (1914-1923), meticulously deciphered a critical set of previously unrecognized prerequisites (or pre-qualifications) for the proper study of races living generationally under "optimal primary states" or OPS. OPS arise only in the presence of ideal environmental factors which facilitate exceptional food chains for the biological life forms. In other words, McCarrison and Price might have argued that this rare OPS is composed of:
(1) ideal soil and environmental factors,
(2) biological life forms, and
(3) their fusion to each other over uninterrupted serial generations.
First and foremost, both McCarrison and Price were struck by how universally these isolated races lived essentially disease-free. This galvanized a great determination in both to decipher why and how this was accomplished. More generally, by "essentially disease-free" we mean pta-peoples who experienced an absolute minimum of sickness during their entire life span. More specifically, most pta-peoples that were noted for long life:
(A) Experienced common and fleeting childhood illnesses;
(B) Were prone to parasitic diseases that their immune systems quickly adapted to;
(C) Did experience infrequent bouts with a small range of acute illnesses that were also very fleeting;
(D) Rarely, if ever, experienced modern day chronic degenerative diseases;
(E) Exhibited in common exquisite human constitutions easily identified as superior over non-members.
For clarification, it should be mentioned that whenever an acute illness would arise, it was never treated with modern day medicines since access was not available. Those pta-Hunzakuts who did experience a rare bout with acute illnesses, even parasitism, were typically and uneventfully resolved by way of their elaborate traditional herbal medicine practices (which made liberal use of fasting techniques integral to their herbal medicine practices).
Secondly, the vast majority of pta-longliving folks were distinguished in that they simply lived essentially disease-free until their final few months of life. At that point it was common for them to just wither away until death. This phenomenon is termed, "death from natural causes." Modern civilization has almost entirely forgotten this natural way of passing on, since heart disease, stroke, cancer or lung diseases do the most killing in our elderly.
Thus, it was with these outstanding considerations that the OPS needed to be carefully surveyed and delineated. Years were required to comprehensively document this investigation, which for the first time in human history, deciphered the resources required to live essentially disease-free and enjoy long lives. As the reader will see, these resources enabled the physics of their surroundings to their innate biology to form a perfect union, as wonderfully portrayed in the recent movie AVATAR by James Cameron.
Specifically and categorically, field studies of McCarrison, Price, Benet and Pitskhelauri undertook comprehensive investigations of the following:
1. The region's water shed dynamics & quality;
2. The farmland's soil composition & fertility rating;
3. The methods of food gathering and agrarian practices;
4. The culture's perfection of food preparation, food selection, and preservation;
5. The culture's lifestyle habits and hygiene;
6. The culture's autochthonous (pristine, unbroken lineage descended from original ancient inhabitants);
7. The primary peoples' constitutional profiles (now due to Ling's work, expanding into their cellular and sub- cellular profiles);
8. The primary peoples' social customs, networks and alliances;
9. The society's spiritual practices; and finally
10. Their traditional medicine practices.
The above 10 parameters may be placed into three separate categories:
- First - the physical properties (physics) underlying the food chain of the region;
- Second - the biology/physiology underlying the food chain of the region (including all natural medicinal elements); and...
- Third - the constitutional expression of the people, which includes the physical, psychological and spiritual profile (or mind/body) of the people.
To further investigate the constitutional aspects of these pta-people, McCarrison and independently about a decade later Francis M. Pottenger, Jr., MD, undertook confirmatory animal research that validated their data point selections above, as nearly as possible. Then about three decades later Hans J. Kugler, PhD, independently added the crucial definitive animal studies concerning longevity causations (see Kugler and his book below). Once these animal studies were completed, it would shed an entirely new light on the subject of human longevity largely ignored by modern gerontologists. For example, it is indeed feasible select human cultures have indeed learned to live well above 120 years of age, contrary to what is the current consensus of opinion.
Independently, Gerson (post WWI - 1959) implemented the pertaining tenets into a reproducible method to successfully regenerate human patients with terminal disease - that is - Gerson perfected the means to bring about unscheduled healing, repeatedly and reproducibly in who would otherwise of died.
Then, many went even further by referencing their comprehensive field investigations with other independent field studies from around the globe. A few then spent much of the remainder of their lives reviewing, re-examining and cross-referencing to other select authorities.
- Select Islands, and
- Even China.
But one more critical factor remained for them to fully elucidate, especially as it concerned the extremely pta-longliving. That being the ever-present forces leading to constitutional degradation.
Almost as soon as these remote cultures were identified, their began incremental stages of degradation to their OPS to which these pta-peoples were totally co-dependent upon. This due to the insidious encroachment of civilization that followed. They would logically first and foremost impact the pathway (food chain) leading up to the extremely pta-longliving members, as well as the very young members of the culture. Unwittingly, the very investigators who wished to avail the world to the secrets of such OPS were often to be the very cause of its degradation or even demise.
Initially this incremental degradation went unrecognized. The degradation could be swift, within just a few years of such remote cultures being identified. In other cases, a more slow degradation spanning a single generation or so unfolded. Indeed, even by the time McCarrison was conducting his original field studies, Hunzaland was undergoing such incremental degradation to its OPS as noted above. If follow-on investigators were not aware of this incremental degradation (as was nearly universally the case), the slow or rapid degradation would compromise their studies in ways they could never hope to realize. It became a blind spot in their methodology, which in turn lead to a domino effect (really a calamity of errors) in that future academics would quote the contrarian studies as proving the original findings were made in error, when no errors were actually made.
For anyone actually trained in constitutional analysis, this would have been obvious. For the trained eye, these exuberant constitutional expressions of such OPS would proportionally decay as the unrecognized factors of constitutional degradation unfolded over the first, then second, then third generations of formerly pristine pta-peoples.
This encroachment of civilization ushering in the dismantlement of the pristine OPS was:
(A). As simple as introducing the primary culture to canned foods;
(B). Introducing modern methods of food preparation (utilizing refined sugar and salt);
(C). Introducting modern agricultural practices that emphasis quantity over quality;
(D). Teaching the culture to wear clothes were none were needed, which led to the Hawaiian/Polynesian plagues of
(E). To the more complicating factors of offering modern medicines which supplanted traditional use of herbs, thus altering the forces of natural selections;
(F). To the most comprehensive such as enabling the migration of non-primary peoples into the region (bybuilding better road ways and introducting trade), as well as facilitating the migration of the young peoples out of the region (to explore the fabled new world as represented by the visitors).
This shifted their traditional societal values until most were turned upside down. As if an onion composed of concentric rings, this turning of traditional societal system upside down occurred in layered fashion. Some layers peeled off slowly, others more quickly.
But even in their later stages, as researchers came and went, the serial sets of follow-on researchers could only find more and more evidence contrary to the original investigators' findings. Academics were to soon use this contrary pieces of evidence to unwittingly rewrite the history of such pristine pta-peoples. This led to a domino effect as these researchers became not only more and more removed from the constituents of OPS, but more and more convinced their methods were fool-proof. In this fashion, a skewed revision process initiated, beginning as early as 1951 in Hunzaland, and stretching out into the mid 1980's as regarded Soviet Georgia and the primary peoples of the Andes (southern Ecuador). All of the original data that revealed the whys and hows of the extremely longliving were rapidly discredited, in many instances by nothing more than logical suppositions to correlate remaining gaps in the revisionists' minds.
Fortunately by their own more common sense revision process, McCarrison and Price were able to extract out of their original documentation a comprehensive and correct deciphering. Their findings showed the only means by which optimal life span and disease-free living had been achievable for the human race at large. And it appears that Professors Benet and Pitskhelauri were able to largely do so as well. Even more fortunately, today "Blue Zone" investigators are reconfirming the relevance of these core discoveries identified by these early select researchers, as listed above. I propose that today's Blue Zones have avoided the advent of world-wide soil exhaustion attributable to poor colloidal humus content and lack of a submicron mineral particles. This appears to be the case, since many of the Blue Zones are juxtaposed near active volcanic fields and/or oceanic reserves of high mineral density accessible to the local food chain.
Only at this point in the course of McCarrisons's and Price's respective studies were the core factors identified as to why and how such pta-races enjoyed such wonderful health. And they both paid meticulous attention that these folks did so always in conjunction with exuberant human constitutions. In all, Price meticulously documented 14 different pta-races all living under their OPS, and all displaying exuberant human constitutions. Therefore, Price was the first in history to document from multiple, unrelated cultures the homogeneity of pta-peoples (i.e., having the same kind of constituent elements). Specifically their nearly identical constitutional references for the human frame, physiology, psychology and lifestyle, regardless of location or ethnicity or even race, were startling.
Furthermore, McCarrison had identified (but many subsequent studies failed to do so), how these optimal human constitutions were totally dependent upon the soil quality to perfect their dietary practices. So both McCarrison and Price embraced the leading agricultural scientists of their day to further elucidate why pta-peoples maximize their constitutional states only under OPS.
The earlier studies conducted by McCarrison, using ptaHunzakuts as his primary reference point, would soon prove the "universal" common constituents for otherpta-peoples to live essentially disease-free. From my study of all the known longliving pta-peoples, two stand taller than all others to date - the pta-Hunzakuts and pta-Abkhasians.(K) Both had not only all of the right constituents as the others, but likely the most superior as well. By this I mean that the natural forces at work, starting at the base to their food chain, and how they had harnessed and perfected their agrarian methods over millennia, plus their extreme isolation and autochthonous heritage, just simply holds me to this opinion. But more than this I cannot say.